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  • Teddy Afro’s “Ethiopia” translated into English

    Ethiopian Professor Alemayehu Gebremariam, a Lecturer of Political Science at California State University, San Bernardino, has translated Teddy Afro’s much beloved “Ethiopia” song into English aiming for those native Ethiopians, who have born and raised abroad.

    Here you can find Professor Alemayehu’s English version poem for Teddy Afro’s Ethiopia:-


    “Ethiopia”
    Even if I pass [die] away
    My motherland [Ethiopia]
    She [remains] is my honor
    Indeed, [she is] my [mother] country.

    So many have died
    Guarding your [her] honor
    Against those who have crossed seas
    To dishonor you [her].

    You are the land of heroes
    [Land] Where Adam left his footprints
    The fountainhead of Ghion [river mentioned in Ch. 2, Genesis]
    [From where] your name is called out.

    Not only those who see your flag waving in the SKY
    Even those who hear the name “Ethiopia” [dare] keep quiet
    Not only those who see your flag waving in the sky
    Even those who hear the name “Ethiopia” [dare] keep quiet.

    With your rainbow [shining]
    The sky draped with your flag
    Your symbol is imprinted on the palm of the world
    And known [even] to Aryam [Ge’ez: sky above all skies, heaven].

    Mountain [ranges] of high peaks
    Have stood guard over you
    [From] The peak of mountains
    That citadel of Axum, Ethiopia.

    You are the gate to Creation
    The [beginning] chapter for the round world
    If [rainbow] colors are seen across the SKY
    It is hers [Ethiopia’s] and no one else’s.

    Even though the world calls her [Ethiopia] backward today
    She will be the front runner of the coming age
    Just let me repeat her name over and over
    Isn’t Ethiopia my own name?

    If there is less food [injera] on the table [Ethiopia is poor]
    Is it possible to TRADE one’s [poor] mother for anything else
    I will hold tight on her skirt
    And never give up hope in my mother.

    Before [I] finish paying her [Ethiopia] for all her favors
    Should not people say [shout out] “Unity” when they hear [the name] Ethiopia
    Ethiopia! Ethiopia! My country!
    Isn’t my honor because of you?

    You are the seed of Solomon
    Tears of the holy ones from which your leaf sprouted
    It should be nothing new [not be surprised] today to those
    Who touched [provoked] you to be burned by the fire they lit.

    Without any limitation to your glory
    In the book of your heritage with the history of the spirit of the ages [written]
    The prophets saw you from afar and wrote in their books:
    “Don’t touch Ethiopia!”

    In the north
    In the south
    In the east and in the west
    May your bounty be full!

    Begone hardship [misery] from the land [Ethiopia]
    Let your bounty be full!
    Begone hardship [misery] from your land [Ethiopia]
    Let your bounty be full!

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  • UAE Bans Meat Imports from Ethiopia

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had put an indefinite ban on all meat imports from Ethiopia starting from October 1, 2015, according to Addis Fortune.

    The ban was due to a rushed order of meat for the EId ul-Adha holiday.

    36 tons of sheep meat was ordered by a charity organization in UAE from seven meat processing companies, namely ELFORA Agro-Industries Plc, Luna Export Slaughter House Plc, Modjo Modern Export Abattoir Plc, Halal Food Industries Plc, HELIMEX (Hashim Ethiopian Livestock Meat Exporter), Allana Group and Abyssinia Export Abattoirs. Usually the normal sheep meat process takes 10 days, but the order came to supply in two days, General Manager of Halal Daniel Zenebe told Fortune.

    Haileselassie Weres, Director of Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, said to find a solution to the matter Meat Inspection Directorate in the Ministry of Agriculture and Meat Producers and Exporters Association is looking forward to communicate with the relevant regulatory bodies in UAE.

    UAE is Ethiopia’s largest meat export destination. The meet market accounts for 58.8 million dollars of the 93.2 million dollars earned in the past budget year. Saudi Arabia comes next accounting for 32.4 percent share, export data from Ministry of Trade shows.

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  • Baby born with one eye, without nose

    Doctor says condition may be due to radiation or medicines

    An Egyptian mother gave birth to a boy with one eye almost in the middle of his face and without a nose, a newspaper reported on Sunday.

    The boy was born at a private hospital in the Northeastern town of El Senbellawein and with other deformities in the face and body, ‘Alyoum Al Sabei’ said.

    It quoted Dr Ahmed Badruddin, who is supervising the baby’s condition, as saying it could be a result of radiation or medicines taken by the mother.

    He said babies having such conditions normally die a few days after birth.

    Source:-emirates247

     

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  • Workers’ travel ban not lifted: Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA)

    The travel ban imposed on workers travelling abroad to look for work is not lifted, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA) said. The Ministry, in a statement it sent advised the public not to be deceived by illegal brokerage. Some individual are misleading the public, pretending that the ban was lifted, the statement noted. The government will make it clear to the people when the ban is lifted, it said. Ethiopia temporarily banned its citizens from travelling abroad to ensure the well-being of its citizens. The government has been taking various measures, including setting up a national council, to prevent human trafficking. It has recently begun crackdown on trafficking gangs by arresting 200 involved in the practice. Despite ongoing efforts, many Ethiopians try to go abroad, travelling via Yemen by sea. The Ministry finally called upon the public to do their part in the ongoing efforts to prevent trafficking and bring traffickers to justice. 

    source : fana

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  • Heineken Breweries S.C. can no longer use beer brand, Waliya

    Heineken Breweries S.C. can no longer use its well promoted beer brand, Waliya, following the verdict of the Lideta Federal High Court on October 11, 2015 which shifted the right to use of the trademark Waliya, to another ongoing brewery project run by Kangaroo Plastic Plc.

    Waliya was registered in the Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) as a trademark owned by Kangaroo Plastic for its ongoing brewery project in Oromia Regional State in Modjo, Kebele 02 before Heineken Breweries.

    Later, on February 25, 2014, Heineken Breweries requested EIPO to register the same trademark for one of its beers, which was not acceptable by the office due to the former registration of the same brand by Kangaroo. In its rejection to register the trademark and name, EIPO instructed Heineken to modify or come up with another name.

    The registered name for both parties in EIPO was ‘Ibex’ which was later translated into Amharic by Heineken. The ibex is a wild mountain goat with long, curved horns.

    Kangaroo Plastic was the major local distributor of the Heineken beer and later in 2010, the two had begun working to form a partnership for a new brewery. The partnership agreement has since terminated, ending Kangaroo’s role as a distributor as well as prospective partner, according to Ephreme Yirga, one of the co-owners of Kangaroo Plastic declining further explanation.

    When Heineken sought to renew the second application, it had neither modified the name Walia, nor had it come up with a new name. It rather, argued convincingly, that Kangaroo had to lose the Walia name as it had not used it for three years, the period of limitation in the intellectual property law to cancel a formerly registered trade name and mark.

    Kangaroo took its case to the EIPO’s appeal hearing Tribunal through its lawyer Mekonnen Semu, who mentioned as Force majeure, a fire accident at Kangaroo Plastic’s plant, which had interrupted the machinery procurement process for the brewery project. The company was forced to suspend the brewery project and reinstate the foam factory’s operation, he argued. It accused Heineken of lying to the EIPO that Kangaroo’s brewery project was dropped.

    That argument was rejected by the EIPO.

    “The two companies have different legal personalities with different rights and obligations. The fire accident occurred in Kangaroo Plastic and this should not be used as a Force majeure ground for the brewery project not utilising the trademark,” the Tribunal reasoned.

    Kangaroo took its case to the High Court, arguing that the Force majeure defense was valid, as the brewery was to be made using the revenue from the foam factory.

    Heineken’s lawyer Mehari Redie had argued that the case was not within the jurisdiction of the court but of an administrative tribunal. The Force majeure argument of Kangaroo should have a direct relationship with the brewery project; damage in another factory could not be a defense. He added that the Ethiopian Insurance Corporation (EIC) had paid compensation for the fire damage.

    The High Court rejected all arguments of Heineken over jurisdiction and Force majeure, accepting that the fire at the factory had hindered the financing of the project. Trademark Registration & Protection Proclamation Number 501/2006 article 35(2) does not give interpretation of what occurrences constitute Force majeure, the court’s presiding judge, Getachew Yirga, remarked and concluded that the fire accident served as a Force majeure to the discontinuation of the project.

    The insurance coverage given to the factory was insufficient to complete the brewery project and Heineken did not come up with other arguments related to the suspension of the project. Hence the court reversed the EIPO tribunal’s decision ordering the office to cancel its registration of Walia for Heineken and reinstate Kangaroo.

    The outcome of the case was in general good, but the High Court’s saying the companies are owned by one person is not proper. What it should have said was that the project has no separate legal personality, Kangaroo’s second lawyer Tafess Yirga said.

    I was wondering how the EIPO office had arrived at the conclusion that Kangaroo Plastic and the brewery project had two separate legal personalities while the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the companies show otherwise. The brewery project has no separate legal personality. It is subsidiary of Kangarro Plastic, Ephreme opined.

    “In the Ethiopian legal framework there is no explicit law that governs corporate relationships. There is no concept of sister company unless de facto. But if the concept has to be applied de facto sister company, the term may be applied to subsidiaries of a parent company. This relationship has an impact of merging legal rights and responsibilities such that debts of one may be paid by the other. However, in the absence of such explicit relationships in the law, it is wrong that the tribunal decided that the two companies have separate legal personalities and the accident in one company could not be an excuse for the other. In addition to the tribunal, the High Court also committed misinterpretation in saying the two companies are owned by one person and damage incurred by one has a direct relationship with the other,” Liqu Dametew (PhD), legal expert in Competition Law & Corporate Governance commented.

    What constitutes Force majeure is even controversial and a fire accident is not Force majeure but rather a foreseeable incident, Liqu extrapolated.

    Another legal expert with specialisation in trademarks emphasised the gap in the law in determining the acts constituting Force majeure. But he noted that cancellation of trademark registration should consider the genuine intention of the party to use the trademark. Given the fire accident’s indirect impact on the beer project, he supported the High Court’s decision and considered the accident as a legitimate reason.

    “We are going to appeal to the Supreme Court and I have no further comment on the judgment,” Mehari Redie said.

    Source : addisfortune

     

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  • New Outpatient Department and Delivery Facility at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital inaugurated

    A new outpatient department and delivery facility at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, built with funding from the U.S government and offering comprehensive integrated HIV clinical and maternity services, opened in Harar today.

    Holly Wong, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Peter H. Vrooman, Charge d’Affaires, A.I., U.S. Embassy; Professor Chemeda Fininsa, Acting President of Haramaya University; Murad Abdulhadi, President of Harari Regional State; and Dr. Kebede Worku, State Minster of Health, participated in the inauguration of the hospital.

    During the ribbon cutting ceremony, Ms. Wong said, “We are here today to inaugurate this new Outpatient Department and Delivery facility, which will provide critical health services to the people of Harar. The opening of this facility represents the results of our successful collaboration and our combined efforts to improve the health of the people of Harar and of Ethiopia.”

    With funding from the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and working in partnership with Haramaya University and the Harari Regional Health Bureau, the U.S. Government provided $ 3.6 million (over ETB. 73 million) for the construction of this new facility.

    According to a statement the US Embassy sent to FBC today, the facility complies with U.S. construction standards and is fully accessible.

    The new facility will provide complete and coordinated care to enhance the patient-centered experience and to increase capacity to accommodate ever increasing patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART).

    The hospital has a quality waiting area, ultrasound facilities, nurse stations, examination rooms, duty rooms, maternity rooms, a nursery, an operation room, a labor/delivery room with bathrooms/showers, a program on the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission, a family planning unit, and adult and pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy.

    The new outpatient and delivery facility will be an additional asset for Haramaya University as a teaching venue for physicians and other health worker training programs.  

    Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital serves as a referral hospital for the entire eastern part of the Ethiopia, including the Eastern Oromia region, Dire Dawa city, the Somali region, and the Harari regional state. Currently, the facility is treating more than 2,097 HIV positive patients.

    It is a teaching hospital for Haramaya University’s College of Health and Medical Sciences. The history of America’s relationship with Haramaya University dates back to the early 1950s when the United States helped establish the original Agricultural College at Haramaya.

    sours: fanabc

     

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  • Facebook will use a satellite to deliver internet access to Africa

    Facebook's founder is planning to launch a satellite to deliver internet services to remote parts of Africa under his controversial Internet.org scheme.

    In a post on the social network, Mark Zuckerberg said he hoped the move would connect "millions" to the internet.

    The satellite, due to launch next year, is currently being built under a partnership with French firm Eutelsat.

    It would allow mobile users to download an app containing free data access to selected services, including Facebook.

    The decision underlines the scale of the billionaire's ambition to boost connectivity in emerging internet markets but the scheme has been met with opposition in many countries such as Uganda, India and Indonesia.

    Critics argue that it risks damaging investment by competing mobile operators and the principle of net neutrality because only selected services will be available by Internet.org.

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  • Ato Demeke Mekonne elected Deputy Prime Minister of Ethiopia

    Demeke Mekonne has been elected Deputy Prime Minister and Social Cluster Coordinator.

    The House of People’s Representatives (HPR), in its regular session today, approved Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn’s nomination of Demeke Mekonnen for Deputy Premiership position.

    Demeke served in various positions in Amhara Regional State. He served as Minister of Education since 2001EC.

    He is Deputy Prime Minister of Ethiopia as well as Executive Committee member of both the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM) since 2005.

    He earned his first degree in Biology and second degree in Political Science.

    He is a trusted, responsible and able political leader, Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn said while presenting his reason for nominating him for the Deputy Premiership position.

    Similarly, the House approved the appointment of Dr. Debretsion Gebremichael as Deputy Prime Minister for Finance and Economic Cluster and Minister of Communication and Information Technology.

    Dr. Debretsion participated in the armed struggle against the dictatorial Derg regime and served in various positions in Tigray Regional State.

    He served as Minister of Communication and Information Technology since 2003 EC. He is Deputy Prime Minister for Finance and Economic Cluster and Minister of Communication and Information Technology since 2005 EC.

    He earned his doctorate degree in Information Technology.

    Aster Mamo was also appointed Deputy Prime Minister for Good Governance and Reform Cluster and Minister of Public Service and Human Resource Development.

    She served as Minister of Youth and Sport from 1998 to 2002 EC as well as in various positions in Oromia Regional State.

    Aster earned her first degree in language and literature and second degree in Management.

    source : fanabc

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  • Zika virus: Pope hints at relaxation of contraception ban

    Pope Francis has hinted that the use of contraception by women at risk of contracting the Zika virus may be permissible.

    The pontiff insisted that abortion remained a crime but said avoiding pregnancy was "not an absolute evil".

    His remarks came in response to a question about how best to tackle the Zika outbreak across Latin America.

    The virus has been linked to the microcephaly birth defects in babies, which can cause development problems.

    Roman Catholic teachings currently ban the use of contraception.

    "We must not confuse the evil consisting of avoiding a pregnancy with abortion," Pope Francis told reporters on a flight returning home from a visit to Mexico.

    "Abortion is not a theological problem. It is a human problem, medical. One person is killed to save another. It is evil in itself, it is not a religious evil, it is a human evil," he said.

    "Avoiding a pregnancy is not an absolute evil. In certain cases, as in this one, or in the one I mentioned of Blessed Paul VI, it is clear," he went on.

    The 79-year-old was referring to a predecessor's decision to authorise nuns at risk of rape in Africa to use contraceptives.

     

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  • Battle of Adwa is celebrated 120 years .

     From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Battle of Adwa (also known as Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray. It was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War, securing Ethiopian sovereignty.

    As the 20th century approached, most of Africa had been carved up among the European powers. The two independent exceptions were the young Republic of Liberia on the west coast of the continent and the Ethiopian Empire in the strategicHorn of Africa. The newly unified Kingdom of Italy was a relative newcomer to the colonial scramble for Africa. Italy had two recently obtained African territories: Eritrea and Italian Somalia. Both were near Ethiopia on the Horn of Africa and both were impoverished. Italy sought to improve its position in Africa by conquering Ethiopia and joining it with its two territories. Menelik II was the brilliant Ethiopian leader who pitted Italy against its

    Background[edit]

    In 1889, the Italians signed the Treaty of Wuchale with then Negus[nb 2] Menelik of Shewa. The treaty ceded territories previously part of Ethiopia, namely the provinces of BogosHamasienAkkele GuzaySerae, and parts of Tigray. In return, Italy promised Menelik's rule, financial assistance and military supplies. A dispute later arose over the interpretation of the two versions of the document. The Italian-language version of the disputed Article 17 of the treaty stated that the Emperor of Ethiopia was obliged to conduct all foreign affairs through Italian authorities. This would in effect make Ethiopia a protectorateof the Kingdom of Italy. The Amharic version of the article however stated that the Emperor could use the good offices of the Kingdom of Italy in his relations with foreign nations if he wished. However, the Italian diplomats claimed that the original Amharic text included the clause and that Menelik knowingly signed a modified copy of the Treaty.[9]

    The Italian government decided on a military solution to force Ethiopia to abide by the Italian version of the treaty. As a result, Italy and Ethiopia faced off in what was later to be known as the First Italo-Ethiopian War. In December 1894, Bahta Hagos led a rebellion against the Italians in Akkele Guzay, in what was then Italian controlled Eritrea. Units of General Oreste Baratieri's army under Major Pietro Toselli (it) crushed the rebellion and killed Bahta. The Italian army then occupied the Tigrayan capital,Adwa. In January 1895, Baratieri's army went on to defeat Ras Mengesha Yohannes in the Battle of Coatit, forcing Mengesha to retreat further south.

    By late 1895, Italian forces had advanced deep into Ethiopian territory. On 7 December 1895, Ras[nb 3] MakonnenRas Welle Betul and Ras Mengesha Yohannes commanding a larger Ethiopian group of Menelik's vanguard annihilated a small Italian unit at the Battle of Amba Alagi. The Italians were then forced to withdraw to more defensible positions in Tigray, where the two main armies faced each other. By late February 1896, supplies on both sides were running low. General Oreste Baratieri, commander of the Italian forces, knew the Ethiopian forces had been living off the land, and once the supplies of the local peasants were exhausted, Emperor Menelik's army would begin to melt away. However, the Italian government insisted that General Baratieri act.

    On the evening of 29 February, Baratieri, about to be replaced by a new governor, General Baldissera, met with his brigadiersMatteo AlbertoneGiuseppe ArimondiVittorio Dabormida, and Giuseppe Ellena, concerning their next steps. He opened the meeting on a negative note, revealing to his brigadiers that provisions would be exhausted in less than five days, and suggested retreating, perhaps as far back as Asmara. His subordinates argued forcefully for an attack, insisting that to retreat at this point would only worsen the poor morale.[10] Dabormida exclaiming, "Italy would prefer the loss of two or three thousand men to a dishonorable retreat." Baratieri delayed making a decision for a few more hours, claiming that he needed to wait for some last-minute intelligence, but in the end announced that the attack would start the next morning at 9:00.[11] His troops began their march to their starting positions shortly after midnight.

    Forces assembled[edit]

     
    An 1890s Italian map of Adwa. A small arrow indicates that north is to the right.

    The Italian army comprised four brigades totaling 17,978 troops, with fifty-six artillery pieces.[12] However, it is likely that fewer fought in the actual battle on the Italian side: Harold Marcus notes that "several thousand" soldiers were needed in support roles and to guard the lines of communication to the rear. He accordingly estimates that the Italian force at Adwa consisted of 14,923 effectives.[13] One brigade under General Albertone was made up of Eritrean askari led by Italian officers.[14] The remaining three brigades were Italian units under Brigadiers Dabormida, Ellena and Arimondi. While these included eliteBersaglieri and Alpini units, a large proportion of the troops were inexperienced conscripts recently drafted from metropolitan regiments in Italy into newly formed "d'Africa" battalions for service in Africa. Additionally a limited number of troops were drafted from the Cacciatori d'Africa units of local Italian settlers.[15][16]

    As Chris Prouty describes:

    They [the Italians] had inadequate maps, old-model guns, poor communication equipment and inferior footgear for the rocky ground. (The newer Carcano Model 91 rifles were not issued because Baratieri, under constraints to be economical, wanted to use up the old cartridges.) Morale was low as the veterans were homesick and the newcomers were too inexperienced to have any esprit de corps. There was a shortage of mules and saddles.[17]

    Italian illustration of Alpini soldiers at Adwa
    British illustration of "Dabormida's last rally"

    Estimates for the Ethiopian forces under Menelik range from a low of 73,000 to a high of over 120,000, outnumbering the Italians by an estimated five or six times.[18] The forces were divided among Emperor Menelik, Empress Taytu BetulRas Wale BetulRas Mengesha AtikemRas Mengesha YohannesRas Alula EngidaRasMikael of WolloRas Makonnen Wolde MikaelFitawrari[nb 4] Gebeyyehu, and Negus[nb 5] Tekle Haymanot Tessemma.[19] In addition, the armies were followed by a similar number of camp followers who supplied the army, as had been done for centuries.[8] Most of the army was composed of riflemen, a significant percentage of which were in Menelik's reserve; however, there were also a significant number of cavalry and infantry only armed with lances.[8] The Kuban Cossack army officer N. S. Leontiev who visited Ethiopia in 1895,[20][21] according to some sources, led a small team of Russian advisers and volunteers.[22][23][24] Other sources assert that Leontiev did not in fact participate in the battle, rather he visited Ethiopia first unofficially in January 1895, and then officially as a representative of Russia in August 1895, but then left later that year, only to return after the battle of Adwa.[25]

    Battle[edit]

    On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped.[26] David Levering Lewis states that the Italian battle plan

    called for three columns to march in parallel formation to the crests of three mountains — Dabormida commanding on the right, Albertone on the left, and Arimondi in the center — with a reserve under Ellena following behind Arimondi. The supporting crossfire each column could give the others made the 'soldiers as deadly as razored shears'. Albertone's brigade was to set the pace for the others. He was to position himself on the summit known as Kidane Mehret, which would give the Italians the high ground from which to meet the Ethiopians.[27]

    However, the three leading Italian brigades had become separated during their overnight march and at dawn were spread across several miles of very difficult terrain. Their sketchy maps caused Albertone to mistake one mountain for Kidane Meret, and when a scout pointed out his mistake, Albertone advanced directly into Ras Alula's position.

    Unbeknownst to General Baratieri, Emperor Menelik knew his troops had exhausted the ability of the local peasants to support them and had planned to break camp the next day (2 March). The Emperor had risen early to begin prayers for divine guidance when spies from Ras Alula, his chief military advisor, brought him news that the Italians were advancing. The Emperor summoned the separate armies of his nobles and with the Empress Taytu beside him, ordered his forces forward. Negus Tekle Haymanot commanded the right wing, Ras Alula the left, and Rasses Makonnen and Mengesha the center, with Ras Mikael at the head of the Oromo cavalry; the Emperor and his consort remained with the reserve.[27] The Ethiopian forces positioned themselves on the hills overlooking the Adwa valley, in perfect position to receive the Italians, who were exposed and vulnerable to crossfire.[8]

     
    Ethiopian painting depicting the battle of Adwa.

    Albertone's Askari Brigade was the first to encounter the onrush of Ethiopians at 6:00, near Kidane Meret,[28] where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain artillery. Accounts of the Ethiopian artillery deployed at Adwa differ; Russian advisor Leonid Artamonov wrote that it comprised forty-two Russian mountain guns supported by a team of fifteen advisers,[24] but British historians suggest that the Ethiopian guns were Hotchkiss and Maxim pieces captured from the Egyptians or purchased from French and other European suppliers.[29] Albertone's heavily outnumbered Askaris held their position for two hours until Albertone's capture, and under Ethiopian pressure the survivors sought refuge with Arimondi's brigade. Arimondi's brigade beat back the Ethiopians who repeatedly charged the Italian position for three hours with gradually fading strength until Menelik released his reserve of 25,000 Shewans and swamped the Italian defenders. Two companies of Bersaglieri who arrived at the same moment could not help and were cut down.

    Dabormida's Italian Brigade had moved to support Albertone but was unable to reach him in time. Cut off from the remainder of the Italian Army, Dabormida began a fighting retreat towards friendly positions. However, he inadvertently marched his command into a narrow valley where the Oromo cavalry under Ras Mikael slaughtered his brigade, while shouting Ebalgume! Ebalgume! ("Reap! Reap!"). Dabormida's remains were never found, although his brother learned from an old woman living in the area that she had given water to a mortally wounded Italian officer, "a chief, a great man with spectacles and a watch, and golden stars".[30]

    The remaining two brigades under Baratieri himself were outflanked and destroyed piecemeal on the slopes of Mount Belah. Menelik watched as Gojjam forces under the command of Tekle Haymonot made quick work of the last intact Italian brigade. By noon, the survivors of the Italian army were in full retreat and the battle was over.

    Immediate aftermath[edit]

    The Italians suffered about 7,000 killed and 1,500 wounded in the battle and subsequent retreat back into Eritrea, with 3,000 taken prisoner. Brigadiers Dabormida and Arimondi were amongst the dead. Ethiopian losses have been estimated at around 4,000–5,000 killed and 8,000 wounded.[26][31] In their flight to Eritrea, the Italians left behind all of their artillery and 11,000 rifles, as well as most of their transport.[31] As Paul B. Henze notes, "Baratieri's army had been completely annihilated while Menelik's was intact as a fighting force and gained thousands of rifles and a great deal of equipment from the fleeing Italians."[32] The 3,000 Italian prisoners, who included Brigadier Albertone, appear to have been treated as well as could be expected under difficult circumstances, though about 200 died of their wounds in captivity.[33] However, 800 captured askaris, regarded as traitors by the Ethiopians, had their right hands and left feet amputated. Augustus Wylde records when he visited the battlefield months after the battle, the pile of severed hands and feet was still visible, "a rotting heap of ghastly remnants."[34] Further, many had not survived their punishment, Wylde writing how the neighborhood of Adwa "was full of their freshly dead bodies; they had generally crawled to the banks of the streams to quench their thirst, where many of them lingered unattended and exposed to the elements until death put an end to their sufferings."[35] There does not appear to be any foundation for reports that some Italians were castrated and these may reflect confusion with the atrocious treatment of the askari prisoners.[36]

    Baratieri was relieved of his command and later charged with preparing an "inexcusable" plan of attack and for abandoning his troops in the field. He was acquitted on these charges but was described by the court martial judges as being "entirely unfit" for his command.

    Public opinion in Italy was outraged.[37] Chris Prouty offers a panoramic overview of the response in Italy to the news:

    When news of the calamity reached Italy there were street demonstrations in most major cities. In Rome, to prevent these violent protests, the universities and theatres were closed. Police were called out to disperse rock-throwers in front of Prime Minister Crispi's residence. Crispi resigned on 9 March. Troops were called out to quell demonstrations in Naples. In Pavia, crowds built barricades on the railroad tracks to prevent a troop train from leaving the station. The Association of Women of Rome, Turin, Milan and Pavia called for the return of all military forces in Africa. Funeral masses were intoned for the known and unknown dead. Families began sending to the newspapers letters they had received before Adwa in which their menfolk described their poor living conditions and their fears at the size of the army they were going to face. King Umberto declared his birthday (14 March) a day of mourning. Italian communities in St. PetersburgLondonNew YorkChicagoBuenos Aires and Jerusalem collected money for the families of the dead and for the Italian Red Cross.[38]

    The Russian support for Ethiopia led to the advent of a Russian Red Cross mission. The Russian mission was a military mission conceived as a medical support for the Ethiopian troops. It arrived in Addis Ababa some three months after Menelik's Adwa victory.[39]

    Follow-up to Ethiopian victory[edit]

     
    General Oreste Baratieri

    Emperor Menelik decided not to follow up on his victory by attempting to drive the routed Italians out of their colony. The victorious Emperor limited his demands to little more than the abrogation of the Treaty of Wuchale.[citation needed] In the context of the prevailing balance of power, the emperor's crucial goal was to preserve Ethiopian independence.[citation needed] In addition, Ethiopia had just begun to emerge from a long and brutal famine; Harold Marcus reminds us that the army was restive over its long service in the field, short of rations, and the short rains which would bring all travel to a crawl would soon start to fall.[40] At the time, Menelik claimed a shortage of cavalry horses with which to harry the fleeing soldiers. Chris Prouty observes that "a failure of nerve on the part of Menelik has been alleged by both Italian and Ethiopian sources."[41] Lewis believes that it "was his farsighted certainty that total annihilation of Baratieri and a sweep into Eritrea would force the Italian people to turn a bungled colonial war into a national crusade"[42] that stayed his hand.

    As a direct result of the battle, Italy signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa, recognizing Ethiopia as an independent state. Almost forty years later, on 3 October 1935, after the League of Nations's weak response to the Abyssinia Crisis, the Italians launched a new military campaign endorsed by Benito Mussolini, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This time the Italians employed vastly superior military technology such as tanks and aircraft, as well as chemical warfare, and the Ethiopian forces were defeated by May 1936. Following the war, Italy occupied Ethiopia for five years (1936–41), before eventually being driven out during World War II by British Empire and Ethiopian Arbegnoch(patriot)[43] forces.

    Significance[edit]

    "The confrontation between Italy and Ethiopia at Adwa was a fundamental turning point in Ethiopian history," writes Henze.[44] On a similar note, the Ethiopian historian Bahru Zewde observed that "few events in the modern period have brought Ethiopia to the attention of the world as has the victory at Adwa".[45]

     
    Two Italian soldiers captured and held captive after the Battle of Adwa.

    The Russian Empire had sold some artillery pieces to the Ethiopian forces and paid enthusiastic compliments to the Ethiopian success. One of the documents of that time stated "The Victory immediately gained the general sympathy of Russian society and it continued to grow." The unique outlook which polyethnic Russia exhibited to Ethiopia disturbed many supporters of European nationalism during the twentieth century.[20][21] The Russian Cossack captain Nikolay Leontiev with a small escort was present at the battle as an observer.[22][46]

    This defeat of a colonial power and the ensuing recognition of African sovereignty became rallying points for later African nationalists during their struggle for decolonization, as well as activists and leaders of the Pan-African movement.[47] As the Afrocentric scholar Molefe Asante explains,

    After the victory over Italy in 1896, Ethiopia acquired a special importance in the eyes of Africans as the only surviving African State. After Adowa, Ethiopia became emblematic of African valour and resistance, the bastion of prestige and hope to thousands of Africans who were experiencing the full shock of European conquest and were beginning to search for an answer to the myth of African inferiority.[48]

    On the other hand, many writers have pointed out how this battle was a humiliation for the Italian military. One student of Ethiopia, Donald N. Levine, points out that for the Italians Adwa "became a national trauma which demagogic leaders strove to avenge. It also played no little part in motivating Italy's revanchist adventure in 1935". Levine also noted that the victory "gave encouragement to isolationist and conservative strains that were deeply rooted in Ethiopian culture, strengthening the hand of those who would strive to keep Ethiopia from adopting techniques imported from the modern West – resistances with which both Menelik and Ras Teferi/Haile Selassie would have to contend".[49]

     

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